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Undergraduate Courses in Biological Sciences

From the 2013 - 2014 Undergraduate Catalog

1004: BIOLOGY ORIENTATION SEMINAR
An introduction to academic and career planning for majors in Biology and students who may be considering Biology as a major. (1H,1C)

1005,1006: GENERAL BIOLOGY
Primarily for those not majoring in the life sciences. General principles of biology and their relevance to society. 1005: Cell function and physiology, nutrition, circulation and water balance in plants and animals, hormones, nerves. 1006: Muscles, behavior, genetics, development, populations, evolution, ecology and the life kingdoms. (Duplicates 1105, 1106). (3H,3C) I,II.

1015,1016: GENERAL BIOLOGY LAB
Primarily for students not majoring in the life sciences. Laboratory experiments emphasizing observation and experimental procedures to investigate biological processes and phenomena. 1015: Cell biology and genetics. 1016: Plant, animal and environmental biology. (Duplicates 1115, 1116; 1125, 1126). (2L,1C) I,II.

1044: LIFE SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Emphasizes development of an awareness and appreciation of biology as part of human history and how the biological sciences will provide for future environmental, technological, cultural, social and government needs. This information should assist students in selecting an area of career-oriented study in the Life Sciences. (1H,1C)

1105,1106: PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY
For students majoring in the life sciences.  1105: biological molecules, cell structure, metabolism, and reproduction; Mendelian and molecular genetics.  1106: animal and plant anatomy and physiology, ecology, and animal behavior.  (Duplicates 1005, 1006). Co: 1115 for 1105; 1116 for 1106. (3H,3C) I,II.

1115,1116: PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Emphasizes biological principles through investigative exercises and collaborative learning.  1115:  cell chemistry, physiology and reproduction and genetics; 1116: plant and animal form and function, and ecology.  Primarily for students majoring in the life sciences. (Duplicates 1015 1016, 1125, 1126) . I,II. X-grade allowed. Co: 1105 for 1115; 1106 for 1116. (3L,1C)

1125,1126: BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES LAB
Emphasizes biological principles through experimental design and collaborative learning.  1125: cell chemistry, physiology and reproduction, genetics and evolution. 1126: plant and animal form and function, and ecology.  This writing intensive course is part of the Writing Across the Major option; these two laboratory courses plus three
additional designated Biology courses will fulfill the Area I Writing Intensive requirement for Biology majors. Primarily for students majoring in Biology.  (Duplicates 1015, 1016, 1115, 1116). Co: 1106, 1105 for 1125. (3L,1C) I,II.

1205H,1206H: HONORS BIOLOGY
Emphasizes biological principles through investigative exercises and collaborative learning.  1205H: cell chemistry and structure, energy transformations, genetics and microevolution.  1206H: macroevolution, plant and animal physiology, populations, ecology and behavior.  This is a writing intensive course.  Simultaneous enrollment in laboratory required.  For students who qualify for the University Honors Program.  (Duplicates 1005, 1006; 1105,1106). (3H,3L,4C) I,II.

2004: GENETICS
Mendelian transmission, chromosome behavior and organization, gene and chromosome mutation, genetic properties of nucleic acids, gene expression and development, DNA technology. X-grade allowed. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H), (CHEM 1036 or CHEM 1056 or CHE M 1036H or CHEM 1056H or CHEM 1016). (3H,3C) I,II.

2104: CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Fundamental molecular mechanisms essential for the function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.  Topics will include: organization and maintenance of cellular structure, energy production, transcriptional regulation, protein synthesis, regulatory pathways, cell-cell interactions and reproduction. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1106 or 1206H or 1006), (CHEM 1036 or CHEM 1056 or CHE M 1016 or CHEM 1036H or CHEM 1056H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2124: CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS
Composition, structure and function of cells; fundamentals of gene expressions, cell physiology, cellular movement and reproduction; stem cells and tissue formation; synthetic biology and applied cell and molecular biology. Not for Biological Sciences majors. Pre: ENGR 2164 or COS 2164. (2H,2C)

2204: PLANTS AND CIVILIZATION
The uses of plants as sources of food, medicine, drugs, spices, beverages, poisons, fiber, oils, and plant exudates. I Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). (3H,3C)

2304 (HORT 2304): PLANT BIOLOGY
Introductory botany.  Form, growth, function, reproduction, and ecological adaptations of major groups of plants. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2404 (ALS 2404): BIOTECHNOLOGY IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY
Introduction to the world-wide impact of biotechnology and molecular biology, including applications to plants, animals, and microorganisms.  Explores basic concepts of genetic engineering, scientific and ethical issues, and public concerns related to biotechnology.  Topics include: environmental release of genetically engineering organisms, bioremediation, safety of genetically engineered food products, transgenic plants and animals, gene therapy, and genetic screening. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H), CHEM 1015, CHEM 1016. (3H,3C) II.

2504: GENERAL ZOOLOGY
Morphology, features, adaptations, and ecology of major animal groups, emphasizing major patterns of evolutionary change. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2604: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
Microbial structure, function, metabolism, genetics and ecology.  The role of microorganisms in host/parasite relationships will be emphasized. Pre: (CHEM 1015, CHEM 1016) or (CHEM 1035, CHEM 1036) or (BIOL 1205H, BIOL 1206H), (BIOL 1005, BIOL 1006) or (BIOL 1105, BIOL 1106). (3H,3C) I,II.

2604H: HONORS GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
Microbial structure, function, metabolism, genetics and ecology. The role of microorganisms in host/parasite relationships will be emphasized. Additional written assignments, class discussions, and readings from the primary literature will be required. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H), (CHEM 1015, CHEM 1016) or (CHEM 1035, CHEM 1036). (3H,3C)

2614: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY
Introduction to microbiological techniques and procedures. Pre: 2604. Co: 2604. (3L,1C) I,II.

2704: EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
Evolutionary mechanisms, systematic principles, and theories of the origin and evolution of life. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2804: ECOLOGY
Fundamental interaction of organisms with the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems.  Topics will include: physical environment and organismic interactions, concepts of population ecology and community ecology, ecosystems interactions, and environmental problems. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2804H: HONORS ECOLOGY
Fundamental interaction of organisms with the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. Topics will include: physical environment and organismic interactions, concepts of population ecology and community ecology, ecosystems interactions, and environmental problems. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C)

2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

2974H: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Honors section.
Variable credit course.

2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

3014 (ENT 3014): INSECT BIOLOGY
Insect biology provides an introduction to the science of entomology.  The course covers the diversity of insects, their biology and behavior, the importance of insects and insect control programs in agriculture, and the effects that insects have had on human history and culture. Laboratory (3024) is optional. I Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). (2H,2C)

3024 (ENT 3024): INSECT BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Taxonomy and ecology of insects commonly encountered. Identification of all orders and many common families. Ecological attributes of each taxon, including food, habitat, life cycle, and behavior.  An insect collection is required. I Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). Co: 3014. (1H,3L,2C)

3104: CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Introduction to methods used to study prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recombinant DNA, protein expression and purification, the polymerase chain reaction, bioinformatics, and microscopy. Pre: 2104. (3L,1C)

3114: FIELD AND LABORATORY ECOLOGY
Experimental and field studies of population growth, competition, stressed ecosystems, plant distribution, and other interactions of plants, animals and microbes with their environments.  Several required weekend field trips. Pre: 2804. (3L,1C) II.

3124: CELL PHYSIOLOGY
Cell structure and metabolism, including enzymes, energy production, photosynthesis, membranes, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and regulation of cellular activity. Pre: 2104, CHEM 2536. (3H,3C) I,II.

3134: HUMAN GENETICS
Principles of genetic analysis in humans with emphasis on genetic diseases of humans; methods of karyotyping human chromosomes; methods of pedigree and genetic analysis of humans; principles, techniques, and analysis of twin studies in humans; techniques used to identify and characterize normal and abnormal chromosomes; principles and methods of DNA fingerprint analysis of humans. Pre: 2004 or 2104. (3H,3C)

3204: PLANT TAXONOMY
Systematic survey of vascular plants, emphasizing identification, terminology, classification, evolutionary relationships. X-grade allowed. Pre: 2304. (2H,3L,3C) II.

3254 (ENT 3254): MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY
An introduction to the roles of insects and other arthropods in the direct causation of disease in humans and animals, and as vectors in the transmission of disease organisms. The epidemiology and replication cycles of vector-borne pathogens with major medical and veterinary importance will be examined.  Information will be provided on the biology and behavior of disease vectors and external parasites, and on the annoying and venomous pests of humans and animals.  Mechanisms of control will be discussed Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1105) or (1205H, 1206H). (3H,3C) II.

3264 (ENT 3264): MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY LABORATORY
Taxonomy and anatomy of insects and arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.  Examination of feeding behavior and ecology.  Emphasis on the mechanism of injury or pathogen transmission by each group.  II. Pre: (1105, 1106) or (1005, 1006) or (1205H, 1206H). Co: 3254. (3L,1C)

3404: INTRODUCTORY ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
A comparative systems level approach to the physiology of animals, emphasizing vertebrates: metabolic, temperature, osmotic, and ionic regulation; function of respiratory, circulatory, digestive, muscle, nervous, and locomotory systems; endocrine regulation and biological rhythms. Must have prerequisites or instructor's permission. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106). (3H,3C) II.

3454: INTRODUCTORY PARASITOLOGY
Ecology, taxonomy, morphology, life cycles, pathogenesis, and host-parasite relationships of parasitic eukaryotes. I Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3L,4C)

3504: HEALTH PROFESSIONS PRECEPTORSHIP
Cooperative shadowing experience in conjunction with select regional hospitals and local health provider. Students observe various medical or dental specialties under the supervision of health professionals. Selection by Director, Office of Health Professionals Advising, and prehealth advisors. Approval by health faculty and mentor required. Pre: junior standing; minimum overall GPA of 3.3. Pass/Fail only. Pre: 1105, 1106, CHEM 1036. (6L,2C)

3774: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Advanced study of the molecular biology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including mechanisms of gene expression and regulation, relative merits of experimental model systems, and practical applications in agriculture and medicine. Pre: 2104 or ALS 3104. (3H,3C) II.

3954: STUDY ABROAD
Variable credit course.

4004: FRESHWATER ECOLOGY
Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems.  Senior standing required. Pre: 2804. (3H,3L,4C) I,II.

4014: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
Discussion of ecotoxicological and philosophical issues in the development of standards for control of toxic chemicals in freshwater, including site-specific examples, application of current control methods, recovery of damaged ecosystems, and government regulations. Pre: 2804. (2H,2C)

4044 (GEOG 4044): BIOGEOGRAPHY
A survey of the field of biogeography.  A study of the factors influencing the distribution of plants and animals approached from ecological, historical, and cultural perspectives.  Human influence on biotic patterns, such as crop domestication, habitat alteration, species
introductions and extinctions, management issues, and environmental change, is a primary force. Pre: 2804 or GEOG 1104. (3H,3C)

4075-4076: BIOINFORMATICS METHODS
Application of bioinformatics methods in biological research.  Begins with theory and methods for analysis of proteins and protein families, and progresses to analysis of complex data sets including whole genome sequences and gene expression.  Laboratory begins with basic techniques for information gathering and molecular sequence and structure analysis, and progresses to analysis of genome sequences and gene expression data sets.  The laboratory component will provide experience in use of standard bioinformatics software and databases. Pre: 3774, BCHM 3114. (2H,3L,3C)

4104: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
Morphological, physiological, and molecular events in embryological and developmental systems, including regulation at the level of transcription, translation, and enzyme or hormone activation. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4114: GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY
Effects of human alteration of climate, landscapes and biogeochemical cycling on ecological structure and functioning at the global scale.  Influence of global changes on ecosystem processes and biodiversity with paleo- and contemporary examples.  Current and future potential feedbacks between biological systems and the global environment. Pre: 2704, 2804. (3H,3C)

4134: EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
Genetic variation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, agents of change in gene frequencies, molecular  evolution, mechanisms of speciation.  Comparison of theoretical models with natural and laboratory populations. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C) II.

4164 (CEE 4164) (CSES 4164) (ENSC 4164): ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
Ecology, physiology, and diversity of soil and aquatic microorganisms; incorporates the significance of these topics within the context of environmental applications such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, control of plant- pathogens in agriculture, and pollution abatement in natural systems.  The laboratory portion of the course will stress methodology development, isolation and characterization of microorganisms from natural and engineered systems, and examination of the roles of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycling. Pre: 2604. (2H,3L,3C) II.

4314: PLANT ECOLOGY
Introduction to ecology of terrestrial plants including major plant functional types, ecophysiological aspects of functional types, molecular plant ecology, behavior of populations, responses of plant communities to disturbance, and vegetation analysis.  Laboratory covers methods for measuring and analyzing natural vegetation, and setting up field and greenhouse experiments. Pre: (2304 or 2804 or FOR 3314) or HORT 2304. (3H,3L,4C)

4334: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY
Chemical interactions between organisms with emphasis on the plant biosphere. Fundamental concepts, theories, and general methodology of chemical ecology: mechanisms of chemically mediated interactions; and engineering of natural chemical defenses in sustainable agriculture. Pre: (2304 or 2804 or FOR 2314 or BCHM 4115), CHEM 1035. (3H,3C)

4354 (ENT 4354): AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGY
Biology and taxonomy of insects and other macroinvertebrates most commonly encountered in freshwater environments. Selected aspects of biology, such as habitat, feeding, locomotion, and life history. Identification of individual taxa, mostly at family and genus level. Significance of these organisms in aquatic ecology, pollution monitoring, and natural resource management. Pre: (1005, 1006), (1015, 1016) or (1105, 1106, 1115, 1116). (3H,3L,4C)

4404: ORNITHOLOGY
Biology of birds, including functional anatomy, systematics, evolutionary history, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory on systematics, anatomy, and field experience in the areas of behavior and ecology. Pre: 2804. (3H,3L,4C) II.

4434: MAMMALOGY
Biology of mammals including evolution, systematics, anatomy, physiology, and ecology. Laboratory on systematics, morphology, zoogeography, and diversity of North American mammals. I Pre: 2804. (3H,3L,4C)

4454: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
Identification, morphology, evolutionary relationships, and natural history of free-living invertebrates, excluding insects. I Pre: 2504. (3H,3L,4C)

4474: ETHOLOGY
An evolutionary and ecological approach to animal behavior, drawing on behavioral genetics, endocrinology, neurophysiology, and behavioral ecology to explain how and why the behavior of an organism is adapted to its environment. I Pre: 2504. (3H,3C)

4484 (ENT 4484) (FIW 4484): FRESHWATER BIOMONITORING
Concepts and practices of using macroinvertebrates and fish to monitor the environmental health of freshwater ecosystems. Effects of different types of pollution and environmental stress on assemblages of organisms and underlying ecological principles. Role of biological studies in environmental regulation. Study design, field and laboratory methods, data analysis and interpretation, verbal and written presentation of results. Pre: (2804), (4004 or 4354 or ENT 4354 or FIW 4424 or FIW 4614). (3H,3L,4C)

4554 (ALS 4554): NEUROCHEMICAL REGULATION
Neurochemical transmission within the vertebrate brain will be examined.  Emphasis will be placed on the chemical coding underlying the control of various behaviors and how these systems can be modified by various drugs or diet. Pre: (ALS 2304 or BIOL 3404), (CHEM 2535). (3H,3C) II.

4564: INFECTIOUS DISEASE ECOLOGY
Principles of infectious disease dynamics from ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Examines a variety of wildlife hosts and disease-causing agents (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) using the framework of agent-host- environment interactions. Selective coverage of specific host and pathogen models to illustrate underlying principles of wildlife disease emergence, maintenance, and spread, as well as connections between wildlife and human health. Pre: 2704, 2804. (3H,3C)

4574 (ALS 4574): SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF BIRDS AND MAMMALS
This course examines origins, influences and implications of social behavior in a variety of avian and mammalian species.  Emphasis is placed on understanding group organization and dynamics in inter and intra-species situations.  Experimental data from several disciplines (e.g., genetics, physiology, biochemistry) are reviewed to demonstrate their associations with behavioral adaptive mechanisms.  Avian and mammalian species living in wild, zoo, agricultural companion and laboratory settings are discussed. Pre: 1106, ALS 3104 or BIOL 2004. (3H,3C)

4604 (FST 4604): FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
Role of microorganisms in foodborne illness and food quality, spoilage, and preservation. Control and destruction of microorganisms in foods. Pre: 2614, 2604. (3H,3L,4C) II.

4624: MICROBIAL GENETICS
Molecular genetics of bacteria and their associated plasmids and phages. I Pre: 2004, (2604 or 2604H). (3H,3C)

4634: MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY
The study of the structure, function and metabolic activities of prokaryotic microorganisms. Topics covered included cell composition and growth, metabolic unity and diversity, patterns of regulation, transport mechanisms, environmental sensing and response and cellular differentiation processes. (BIOL 4624 is recommended, but not required.) Pre: (2604 or 2604H), (2104 or 2004). (3H,3C)

4644: MICROBIAL MOLECULAR GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY
Introduction to classical and molecular methods used for the study of bacterial genetics and physiology. Laboratory exercises cover analysis of patterns of gene regulation; assay of enzymatic activities; mutagenesis followed by selection, screening, and physiological characterization of mutant strains; genome database utilization; and large scale fermentation. Pre: 4624. (1H,6L,3C)

4664: VIROLOGY
Classification, structure, pathogenesis, host response, and replication strategies of viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals, stressing mechanisms elucidated by molecular biological techniques. I Pre: 2104, (2604 or 2604H), 2614. (3H,3C)

4674: PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY
Characteristics of bacteria that cause human disease, nature of infectious processes, virulence factors, epidemiology, resistance, immunization. Pre: 2004, 2104, (2604 or 2604H), 2614. (3H,3C)

4704: IMMUNOLOGY
Immunochemistry of antigens and antibodies, serological reactions, chemistry of complement, control of immunity, immune response of an intact animal. Pre: CHEM 2536 or BIOL 2104. (3H,3C)

4714: IMMUNOLOGY LABORATORY
Serological and immunobiological techniques used to interpret the consequences of an immune response. Pre: 4704. (3L,1C) I,II.

4724: PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY LAB
Microbiological techniques used in the laboratory to identify and characterize bacteria that cause infectious diseases. Pre: 2004, 2104, (2604 or 2604H), 2614. Co: 4674. (3L,1C)

4734: INFLAMMATION BIOLOGY
Cellular and molecular pathways controlling human responses to inflammatory challenges.  Regulation of immune cells during inflammation. Interaction of host cells and tissues with environmental risk factors that cause inflammation. Pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, multi-organ failure, aging, neurological diseases and sepsis. Therapeutic intervention of inflammatory diseases. Pre: 2104. (3H,3C)

4764: CAPSTONE MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY SEMINAR
Review and discussion of contemporary research topics in microbiology and immunology, methods of research data analysis, the research publication process, research presentation and interview skills, career paths for
microbiology and immunology graduates, preparation for graduate school, preparation for entry into the job market. Pass/Fail only. Co: 4624. (2H,2C)

4774: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LAB
An introduction to recombinant DNA methods, including restriction endonuclease digestion, gel electrophoresis, cloning, Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and analysis of reporter gene expression in transgenic organisms. BIOL 3774 may be taken as a corequisite with 4774. I,II. Pre: 3774. (1H,6L,3C)

4784: BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
Covers medical, agricultural, environmental and industrial biotechnology and their ethical, legal and social implications.  Includes the commercial exploitation of microbes, plants, and animals, plus safety of the food supply, conservation genetics, use in forensic science, patent laws, and the regulations governing biotechnology in the U.S. and overseas.  Does not count as Biology elective for biology majors/minors. Pre: BCHM 3114, BCHM 3124, (BIOL 3774, BIOL 4774) or (BCHM 4116, BCHM 4124). (3H,3C) II.

4804: PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY
The study of the vast array of physiological, morphological, and behavioral properties of prokaryotes.  Topics include: modern prokaryotic classification, prokaryotic diversity, relationship and importance to cell and molecular biology and biochemistry, application and use in industry and agriculture, and to the maintenance of the biosphere. Must have pre-requisites or consent of the instructor. Pre: (2604 or 2604H), 2614, (3124 or 4634 or BCHM 3114). (3H,3C)

4844: PROTEOMICS AND BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY
Introduction to mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation and advanced proteomic methods for systems biology applications. Peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem MS, quantitation, phospho/glyco proteomics, and bioinformatics tools for evaluation and interpretation of mass spectrometry data. Pre: 2104, CHEM 2536, PHYS 2205, PHYS 2206. (3H,3C)

4854: CYTOGENETICS
Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes, with emphasis on (i) use of model systems to study specific chromosome substructures or functions; (ii) techniques used to identify and classify both normal and aberrant chromosomes; and (iii) diseases caused by defective chromosome structure and/or function. Pre: 2004, 2104. (3H,3C)

4874: CANCER BIOLOGY
The molecular and cellular basis of cancer, including viral and cellular oncogenes, tumor suppression mechanics, cellular immortality, genomic integrity, angiogenesis, metastasis, and traditional and developing theories. Pre: 2004, 2104. (3H,3C)

4884: CELL BIOLOGY
Advanced study of the inner workings of eukaryotic cells, including membrane structure and function, protein secretion, the cytoskeleton, cell cycle control and intercellular communication. Pre: 3774 or BCHM 4116. (3H,3C) II.

4964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.

4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

4974H: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Honors section. Variable credit course.

4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

4994H: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Honors section. Variable credit course.